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同等学力申硕英语冲刺备考之阅读理解(附答案
文章来源:www.yjsedu.cn 作者:在职研究生网 发表时间:2016-06-21阅读:

阅读理解

Visual impairment(视觉障碍)carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through one´s physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established. Because observational skills are more limited,self-control within the immediate surroundings is limited. The visually impaired person is less able to anticipate hazardous situations or obstacles to avoid.

Orientation refers to the mental map one has of one´s surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is best generated by moving through the environment and piecing together relationships,object by object,in an organized approach. With little or no visual feedback to reinforce this mental map,a visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and clues enable visually impaired persons to affirm their position in Space.

Mobility,on the other hand,is the ability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within one´s physical and social environment. Good orientation skills are necessary to good mobility skills. Once visually impaired students learn to travel safely as pedestrians(行人)they also need to learn to use public transportation to become as independent as possible.

To meet the expanding needs and demands of the visually impaired person,there is a sequence of instruction that begins during the preschool years and may continue after high school. Many visually impaired children lack adequate concepts regarding time and space or objects and events in their environment. During the early years much attention is focused on the development of some fundamental concepts,such as inside or outside,in front of or behind,fast or slow,movement of traffic,the variety or intersections,elevators or escalators,and so forth. These concepts are essential to safe,efficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings,first within buildings,then in residential neighborhoods,and finally in business communities.

56. How can we increase the visually impaired person´s ability to travel through his physical and social environment?

A. By helping him develop adequate orientation and mobility skills.

B. By teaching him to learn observational skills.

C. By warning him of hazardous situations or obstacles.

D. By improving his visual ability.

57. The visually impaired person´s position in space        .

A. is not determined by memory but by physical landmarks and clues

B. is located in relation to other items in his mental map

C. enables him to construct the mental map

D. reinforces the mental map of his surroundings

58. Mobility skills which the visually impaired person is learning refer to the ability        .

A. to travel as a dependent tourist

B. to travel as a pedestrian and a passenger

C. to travel as a pedestrian with a company

D. to travel within the safe physical and social environment

59. In the passage,the author insists that        .

A. visually impaired children go to school for survival

B. the needs and demands of visually impaired children expand

C. visually impaired children acquire the fundamental concepts for safe mobility

D. preschool children receive the instruction in the concepts of time and space or objects and events

60. What is the author mainly talking about in the passage?

A. Visual impairment and memory.

B. The visually impaired person´s physical and social environment.

C. Mental development of the visually impaired person.

D. Orientation and mobility of the visually impaired person.

答案解析:

有视觉障碍的人如果没有掌握足够的定位和移动技能,他们在自然和社会环境中的行走能力会减弱或受到限制。因为在临近的环境中的自控能力受到限制,观察能力就更加受到限制,有视觉障碍的人不能预见应该避免的危险情况或障碍。

定位指的是一个人根据自己周围的环境以及他自身与这一环境的关系在大脑中形成的一张脑部图。通过在环境中移动,将环境中各个物体之间的关系一个一个地联系起来,就能够最好地形成这种脑部地图。很少或根本没有视觉反馈来加强这种脑部地图的话,有视觉障碍的人就必须依靠对关键性地标的记忆和其他线索。地标和线索使有视觉障碍的人能够确定他的位置和空间。

另外,移动指的是一个人在自然和社会环境中安全、有效地从一点向另一点行走的能力。良好的定位技能对良好的移动技能是必要的。一旦有视觉障碍的学生学会像行人一样安全行走,他还需要学会使用公共交通工具,以便尽可能地独立。

为了满足有视觉障碍者不断增长的需求,人们制订了一系列的培训计划,这种培训开始于学前阶段并持续到中学毕业。许多有视觉障碍的儿童对其环境中的空间或物体以及事件缺少适当的概念。在早期阶段,培训的重点应该放在一些基本概念的学习上,比如里或外、前或后、交通工具运行得快或慢、线路变化或交叉路口、电梯或自动扶梯等。这些概念对安全、有效地穿行于熟悉或不熟悉的环境至关重要,首先是有关建筑物内的概念,然后是有关其住宅区附近的概念,最后是有关商业区的概念。

56. 【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】我们如何能帮助那些有视觉障碍的人提高他们在周围的环境中的能力?

A. 帮助他们发展充分的定位和移动的技能。

B. 教给他们学习观察的技能。

C. 警告他们危险的环境和障碍。

D. 提高他们的视觉能力。

线索:文章的第1段提到“Visual impairment(视觉障碍)carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through one´s physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established.”表明A是正确答案。选项B和选项C是问题产生的原因,而不是解决该问题的办法。

57. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】有视觉障碍的人在空间的位置        。

A. 不是被记忆力而是被身体特征和线索所决定

B. 通过他脑部图中的其他事物关系定位

C. 使他能够形成脑部图

D. 强化他有关周围环境的脑部图

线索:文章的第2段提到“Orientation refers to the mental map one has of one´s surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is best generated by moving.”表明选项B是正确答案。选项A和原文的第2段“…a visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and clues…”相反。

58. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】有视觉障碍的人学习的移动技能指的是        。

A. 作为一个独立旅行家旅行的技能

B. 作为一个行人和乘客行走的能力

C. 作为一个带同伴的行人行走的能力

D. 在安全的自然和社会环境下行走的能力

线索:文章的第3段提到“Mobility,on the other hand,is the ability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within one´s physical and social environment.”表明选项D是正确答案。

59. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】本文作者强调        。

A. 有视觉障碍的孩子为了生存应该上学

B. 视觉上的需求损害了儿童的发展

C. 有视觉障碍的人获得基本的安全移动的概念

D. 学龄前的儿童应该得到有关时间、空间或事物等概念的培训

线索:文章的第4段提到“…These concepts are essential to safe,efficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings…”表明选项D是正确答案。

60. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨判断

【解析过程】本文作者主要谈论的是        。

A. 视觉障碍和记忆力

B. 视觉障碍的人的自然和社会环境

C. 视觉障碍的人的智力发展

D. 有视觉障碍的人的定位和移动

从整体上看,文章讨论了视觉障碍的人的方位确定和移动。

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